How much “sameness” is enough and how much is too much? The devil, quite literally, is in the details. The Apostles expect a high degree of uniformity between the churches and demand a high degree of conformity.
Reformed churches not only have the regulative principle worship (RPW) to guide them regarding elements and forms, but they also, throughout their history, have had liturgies and directories. The liturgies were the more restrictive (e.g. Strasburg, Geneva, Amsterdam), the directories (Westminster Directory of Public Worship and the family of directories it spawned) less so, allowing more freedom, leaving more to the discretion of the minister. Yet a high degree of uniformity has always been the goal, even among Presbyterians.
The Directory and Directions
We might ask ourselves, what is the function of a directory if not to direct? What is the point of providing examples of prayer and descriptions of preaching and rubrics for communion and baptism if it is not for those examples and descriptions and rubrics to be followed? The aim of the original Directory was substantial uniformity, or “sameness,” with the past, in the present and for the future. The Westminster divines explained in the “Preface” to the Directory that they were “persuaded” that “our first reformers… were they now alive… would join with us in this work.” There is the connection with the past, with the first generation of Reformers whose work revived the worship of “the ancient church,” as Calvin claimed.
Moreover, they understood themselves to be answering “the expectation of other reformed churches” abroad for whom, along with “many of the godly at home,” the Book of Common Prayer (BCP) “proved an offense.” There is uniformity with present-day Reformed churches, domestic and foreign.
Consequently, they argued, their work of “further reformation” was required, bringing the churches of England, Ireland and Scotland into conformity with “the reformed churches abroad.” There is the goal of perpetuating their work into the future. Through the Directory they aimed to “give some public testimony of our endeavors for uniformity in divine worship” which they had promised in their Solemn League and Covenant, wherein they pledged to endeavor to bring about “the nearest conjunction and uniformity in religion, confession of faith, form of church government, directory for worship and catechizing.”
No one, from Bucer to Calvin to the Westminster Assembly to the late 20th century considered liturgical uniformity unusual, indeed the opposite. All thought substantial uniformity was necessary to (1) promote unity; (2) to guard the church from the introduction of unbiblical (as determined by the RPW) and therefore unauthorized elements into the services of the church; and (3) ensure that the authorized elements receive the attention they are due. Medieval novelties were removed by the Reformers; future novelties were barred. Our fear of uniformity, our resistance to conformity to historic liturgical forms is unprecedented and unbiblical. Unbiblical? Let me explain.