The principal work of the Holy Spirit as Paraclete is to bring comfort, but the translation of the word itself as ‘Comforter,’ however common, appears to be incorrect and cannot be justified. Παρακαλεῖν does mean ‘encourage,’ ‘comfort,’ but παράκλητος is a passive, not an active, form. The explanation that most presently give it and that is supported by this active form, namely, ‘counselor.’
One exegetical consideration upon which I have never truly been settled is that which concerns the meaning of the word παράκλητος (Paraklete)–as it appears in such places in Scripture as 1 John 2:1 and John 14:16. The list of translation options from which we may choose includes such glosses as Comforter, Counsellor, Advocate, Helper, Keeper and Encourager. I have long been undecided to how to come to a settle opinion about the proper gloss. On the surface, all of these translations have their merit. However, we will only ever determine the meaning of the word based on the context in which it appears in Scripture.
Needless to say, I was delighted to find a treatment of the meaning of this word in Geehardus Vos’ Reformed Dogmatics. Vos gave the word two individual meanings, based on its respective exegetical contexts. The first is that which is tied to the teaching of 1 John 2:1. Vos wrote:
“[Jesus] is called our Substitute or Advocate. He is α παράκλητος, Paraclete (1 John 2:1). One should note that the word paraclete is used in a double sense in the New Testament. It is originally a passive form and means ‘someone who is called to help’–that is, an advocate.